Drawing of colon seen from front
(rectum coloured red)
Anatomy of the anus and rectum
|Artery||Superior rectal artery (first two-thirds of rectum), middle rectal artery (last third of rectum)|
|Vein||Superior rectal veins, middle rectal veins|
|Nerve||Inferior anal nerves, inferior mesenteric ganglia|
|Lymph||Inferior mesenteric lymph nodes, pararectal lymph nodes, internal iliac lymph nodes, Deep inguinal lymph nodes|
The rectum (from the Latin rectum intestinum, meaning straight intestine) is the final straight portion of the large intestine in some mammals, and the gut in others. The human rectum is about 12 centimetres (4.7 in) long, and begins at the rectosigmoid junction (the end of the sigmoid colon), at the level of the third sacral vertebra or the sacral promontory depending upon what definition is used. Its caliber is similar to that of the sigmoid colon at its commencement, but it is dilated near its termination, forming the rectal ampulla. It terminates at the level of the anorectal ring (the level of the puborectalis sling) or the dentate line, again depending upon which definition is used. In humans, the rectum is followed by the anal canal, before the gastrointestinal tract terminates at the anal verge.