Efek Negatif Minyak Ikan dan Minyak Bunga Matahari Jika Dikonsumsi Jangka Panjang

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Minyak ikan dan minyak bunga matahari diketahui banyak memiliki manfaat untuk kesehatan. Namun penelitian terbaru menyakini bahwa mengkonsumsi minyak tersebut dalam jangka panjang dapat menyebabkan risiko fatty liver (perlemakan hati) dikemudian hari.

Dengan melakukan pengamatan terhadap tikus, peneliti menemukan bahwa mengkonsumsi minyak ikan atau minyak bunga matahari dalam jangka panjang dapat menyebabkan perubahan pada hati dan membuat organ tersebut rentan mengalami yang disebut sebagai non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH).

Penulis studi, Jose Luis Quiles yang merupakan seorang profesor fisiologi dari University of Granada di Spanyol beserta rekannya melaporkan temuannya tersebut dalam The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry.

Di Amerika Serikat sendiri diperkirakan 20 persen warganya mempunyai penyakit NAFLD dan NASH. Penyakit NASH ditandai dengan penumpukan lemak di dalam hati yang bukan disebabkan oleh konsumsi alkohol, peradangan maupun kerusakan sel hati. NASH lama kelamaan akan menyebabkan risiko sirosis hati dan kanker hati. Beberapa faktor yang dapat menjadi penyebab NASH antara lain obesitas, hipertensi, kolesterol tinggi, dan diabetes tipe 2.

Profesor Quiles dan rekannya menunjukkan bahwa beberapa jenis minyak yang kita konsumsi dapat mempengaruhi kesehatan dikemudian hari. Mereka menganalisa berbagai macam jenis minyak seperti minyak bunga matahari (sunflower oil), minyak ikan (fish oil), minyak zaitun perawan (virgin olive oil), dan sebagainya. Berbagai minyak itu diuji cobakan pada tikus. Ilmuwan meneliti bagaimana respon tikus itu saat diberi minyak-minyak tadi seumur hidupnya diantaranya pengaruhnya terhadap respon struktur hati, ekspresi gen, fibrosis hati (jaringan parut), stres oksidatif, dan panjang telomere.

Stres oksidatif merupakan suatu ketidakseimbangan antara radikal bebas yaitu molekul yang dapat merusak sel dengan kemapuan tubuh untuk mengoksidasi molekul tersebut dan mencegah efek bahayanya. Sedangkan telomere merupakan “topi” di setiap helai DNA yang melindungi kromosom. Semakin pendek telomere maka semakin besar kerusakan selnya.

Penelitian menunjukkan pemendekan telomere menyebabkan berbagai penyakit penuaan. Sedangkan bila telomere terlalu panjang, dapat menyebabkan risiko kanker.

Penelitian juga menunjukkan bahwa lemak hati terakumulasi seiring dengan bertambahnya usia, namun ternyata juga dipengaruhi oleh jenis lemak yang dikonsumsi. Penelitian yang dilakukan oleh Profesor Quiles dan kawan-kawan menemukan bahwa minyak ikan dan minyak bunga matahari jika dikonsumsi terlalu lama akan berefek negatif pada kesehatan hati tikus.

Tikus yang diberi asupan minyak bunga matahari seumur hidupnya, mengalami fibrosis hati dan mengubah struktur organ tersebut, menyebabkan perubahan ekspresi gen, dan peningkatan oksidasi pada sel hati. Tikus yang diberi asupan minyak ikan seumur hidupnya menunjukkan adanya peningkatan oksidasi sel terkait usia di dalam hatinya. Tikus tersebut juga mengalami penurunan aktivitas rantai transportasi elektron di mitokondria. Selain itu pemberian minyak ikan dalam jangka panjang pada tikus menyebabkan peningkatan panjang telomere relatif di hati. Minyak zaitun perawan diketahui menimbulkan kerusakan paling kecil pada hati tikus dibandingkan beberapa minyak yang diuji coba tadi.

Secara keseluruhan tim peneliti menunjukkan bahwa minyak zaitun perawan merupakan lemak makanan yang paling baik untuk hati jika dikonsumsi jangka panjang.

“Perubahan yang disebabkan oleh konsumsi jangka panjang minyak bunga matahari dan minyak ikan membuat hati rentan terhadap non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), suatu penyakit yang sangat serius yang dapat menjadi katalis untuk penyakit hati lainnya seperti sirosis dan kanker hati. Kami percaya bahwa penelitian ini akan sangat berguna dalam mencegah dan mengobati beragam jenis penyakit hati.”

Profesor Jose Luis Quiles

Minyak zaitun perawan (virgin olive oil) merupakan pilihan yang paling sehat yang telah terbukti dalam hubungannya dengan berbagai macam aspek kesehatan. Minyak ini berwarna kehijauan yang diperoleh dari hasil ekstraksi pertama minyak zaitun

Temuan ini sangat mengejutkan karena banyak produk suplemen yang mengungkapkan manfaat dari konsumsi minyak ikan dan minyak bunga matahari, namun sepertinya jika Anda ingin mengkonsumsinya dalam jangka panjang, mungkin perlu dipertimbangkan lagi.


Sumber:
Fish oil may not be as healthful as you think, study finds. https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/320795.php. Diakses 06 Februari 2018.

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